Who can end history – 谁能“终结”历史? – English

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When the Soviet Union disintegrated, Eastern Europe underwent drastic change, and the Cold War ended, Japanese-American scholar Fukuyama said: communism has ended, there is now only one way forward for historical development: Western-style market economy and democracy. In his view, the history of human society is a ‘universal history of mankind headed towards a free and democratic system’. A free democratic system is ‘the final development of human ideology’ and ‘the ultimate form of human ruling system’.

However, further developments gave Fukuyama a slap in the face.

The outbreak of the 2008 financial crisis revealed to the world the real nature of this so-called ‘democracy’. Since the 1980s, almost thirty years of economic neo-liberalism and political conservatism have created a global ideological illusion: that market fundamentalism and liberal democracy were universal. But under cover of economic freedom and democratic values, the US gradually replaced its creditor country strategy with a debtor country strategy, and used high fiscal deficits and high trade deficits to plunder and rule the world. By virtue of the ‘dollar hegemony’, the US firmly holds political and economic dominance.

The so-called dollar hegemony started in 1971, and has shown the dollar play the role of a primary reserve currency with no gold backing, no monetary and fiscal constraints from the US, only supported by the US military and geopolitical strength, yet continuing to play a primary role in global finance and trade. 以这种支配性金融地位,通过美元纸币进口财富、美元外汇回流、美元价值贬值三个环节,对世界财富进行掠夺。而在这种财富掠夺中,包括欧日在内的世界制造业大国却无法采取自卫措施,因为美元霸权导致当前全球金融处于一种恐怖平衡状态,任何实质性变革都可能招致全球金融和经济体系彻底崩溃。

这种不讲起码市场道德的赤裸裸的掠夺行为,这种依靠强大军力和垄断关键经济资源支撑的国际经济霸权,这种对世界各国经济的绑架和敲诈,难道就是福山所谓的国际民主吗?也许福山所说的民主是政治层面的,然而如果一个国家连起码的经济民主都不具备,国民财富的基本安全都不具有,政治民主又从何谈起呢?危机中的事实证明,福山所谓的后历史时代和国际民主时代的实现,是彻头彻尾的意识形态欺骗。

然而,既然后历史世界没有到来,那么现在的世界历史处于什么时代呢?资本主义的发展经历过自由资本主义和垄断资本主义即帝国主义两个时代。今天的资本主义是否超越了帝国主义时代呢?显然没有。危机告诉人们,今天整体上依然处于列宁所讲的帝国主义时代,资本输出依然是影响当今世界经济秩序的核心因素。但是,今天的资本主义已不再是单纯的资本输出的帝国主义,还是债务输出的帝国主义;不再是单纯依靠通过跨国公司直接剥削的帝国主义,还是依靠美国央行和国际金融大鳄直接掠夺的帝国主义。也就是说,资本帝国主义已经发展为基于资本输出的金融垄断帝国主义。这就是福山所谓“后历史世界”的真相。

The history of capitalism has not come to an end, but we’re coming closer to this end; the history of socialism has come even less close to an end, it not only tenaciously survives in the middle of a crisis, but more and more recognizes the awakening of the people of the world. History will never end, what will end is only a concept about the end of history.

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Source : 草根

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