The collapse of political language – 政治语言的堕落 – English

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No matter what the word is, as soon it is taken to China it becomes incomprehensible. This maybe be a cultural distortion, it may be that there was a misreading during translation, and even more likely it could be reading an interpretation into the word. It may be that the rich connotations of the word itself are not fundamentally understood, and it may be a deliberate distortion. The only thing is, these are apparently not very important. What is important is who is doing this as such. Clearly, other people really don’t have the ability to do this. The ones who can do this are politicians and those blowing the horn for politicians.

The most typical words that have already reach the 随落perfect-tense are democracy, rule of law, and governance.

First let’s look at democracy. Democracy was first – democracy is the right of the people, democracy is the combination of direct democracy and indirect democracy. So long as we say democracy, the meaning of democracy cannot change. Democracy is not divided according to class, or according to East-West, or according to -isms. After a so-called Marxist sinification, there had to be a proletariat and capitalist classes (bourgeoisie) or capitalist or socialist added to on the front of democracy, plus that the people and the masses are in charge of their own affairs, plus democratic centralism. 这就不知是什么民主了。更为有意思的是民主集中制,把民主与集中两个不相干的名词加在一起,民主集中制最重要的内容是全党服从中央,服从中国的权威,民主的影子再也看不见。

When the power of the people is emerging, a majority and a minority must appear, and where there is disagreement about policy, disputes are resolved through the principle of the majority. But the winning party cannot represent the people, and the losing party cannot be ‘non-people’, or we fall into an autocratic form of democracy. The power of the people is the power of the majority and the minority. 对于人民的权力进行了无限度的曲解,很显然是别有用心。There is a saying that says, if the majority is represented, then logically, there is no representation for the minority. 按此类推,下一次还会出现少数与多数,再一次代表时在逻辑上又排斥了少数人。把逻辑进行到底,最后代表的就是极少数。The power of the people is connected to the power of elections, with no possibility for people to take part in elections, and without lawful authority, how can we say that there is representation? 代表是人大代表,如何转换成政党代表了呢?这惊险的一跃,人民的权力变成了政党的权力。政党的权力在全党服从中央的条件下,变成了少数几个人甚至一个人的权力。The power of the people becomes unrestricted despotic power.

Second, let’s look at the rule of law. If we say that democracy has shown variations in its two thousand years of development, the meaning of ‘rule of law’ has not changed considerably. At its core, the concept of the rule of law entails limitation of public power in order to protect civil rights. 到了中国,把法制当成传统意义的法制,这种法制是治民的法制。Deng Xiaoping said that in order to strengthen democracy, democracy needed to be subjected to the rule of law, not that the rule of law be democratised – otherwise, we would have seen the emergence of great democracy during the Cultural Revolution. Deng Xiaoping’s theory of legalising democracy is about democracy entering the orbit of the rule of law, and in effect, make people abide by the law, and become law-abiding citizens. 民主法治化是民主的权力也要受到限制,这一点,邓小平不可能考虑到。

现在有了进步,就是把法制化变成了法治化。概念的进步是一个进步,概念的进步需要实质性的进步,没有实质性的进步,讲依法治国就会变成以法治国,甚至以领导人的看法和说法治国。法治的实质性进步就需要司法独立,只有司法独立,法院作为最后的仲裁者才能笑到最后,法院才能是最高的权威,“最后的权威”。布赖斯形象地说:“权力最后的根源,即人民的主权,通常总是完全地和有力地流着,由发源的地方流出,流出以后就分成许多支流,而每一支流全为建筑巧妙的堤岸所包围而不能逾越,司法机关监视的手一见水流有冲破任何一段的堤岸的危险时就马上预备好去补好。”司法独立是公平正义的最后的堡垒,这样的垒一旦冲破,整个社会就会坍塌。没有司法独立去谈法治是不健全的法治,甚至根本就不是法治,而是党治。

第三再看治理。把治理分为恶治与良治,良治就是实现治理水平和治理体系的现代化。在西方,治理是有宪政民主背景的,离开这样的背景,所有的治理都会导向恶治,即使怀揣上帝般的动机的治理也会治成人间地狱。没有宪政民主背景的治理,不可能出现良治,至多是新权威治理。新权威治理如何进入治理水平和治理体系的现代化呢?良治需要限治,限治才能达致良治。新权威治理是要扩大权力,扩大权力只能是恶治。通过扩大权力带来良治,是一厢情愿。

好词得用好,就要把握好每一个词的基本内涵。拿来一个好词,填充权力的私货,挂羊头卖狗肉,是无耻无德的行为。词的滥用就会导致权力的滥用,权力的滥用又会强化词的滥用。这方面,如果不警惕,什么乱七八糟的东西都来了。打开窗户是好事,让体制内产生的苍蝇去呼吸新鲜空气就是坏事。苍蝇呼吸新鲜空气,人只能呼吸有毒气体,这种傻事,还是不干的好。

Eastern Networks

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Source : 21ccom

About julien.leyre

French-Australian writer, educator, sinophile. Any question? Contact julien@marcopoloproject.org